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Islamic figures in the three fields of science

fiqh science

           Fiqh according to language is "al-fahmu al-amiq" which means deep understanding, in terms of the science that explains the laws of sharia. fiqh science can also be interpreted as a science that explains how to worship, fiqh science is one of the 3 sciences that we must know (tauhid, tasawuf and fiqh).The basics of the science of fiqh include: the Qur'an, hadith, ijma and qiyas.

          In Islam, prominent figures / scholars of fiqh who are well-known include Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Malik, Imam Asyafi'i and Imam Ahmad bin Hamali, these 4 scholars are also known as the founders of the School of Fiqh.

the following is their biography:

A. Imam Abu Hanifah

         he is known as the founder of the Hanafi school, that is why many call him Imam Hanafi. Born in Kufa in 80 H or 699 AD, his real name was Nu'man bin Thabit bin Zuta in mahan at-taymi.

        Imam Abu Hanifah lived during the reign of the two great Islamic states, namely the Umayyad Daulah and the Abbasid Daulah, during the Umayyad Daulah he was able to witness the collapse of the Daulah and during the Abbasid Daulah period, he lived during the tenure of the government of Abu Abbas As-Saffah and Abu Jafar Al- mansur.

        His simple attitude even though he was born from a wealthy merchant and his love of science, especially religion, was very large, apart from the science of fiqh he studied other sciences such as

interpretation, hadith, Arabic and wisdom.

        he had and was lucky to meet Anas bin Malik (tabi'in), and narrated hadith from him.

Imam Hanifah is the first person to compile the book of fiqh starting from the chapter on thaharah (holiness), prayer and so on.Some of his works include:

  •  great fiqh
  •  al-alim wal mutam
  •  musnad fiqh akbar

Imam Hanafi in determining the law in accordance with his madhhab uses the methods of the Qur'an, Sunnah, fatwas of friends, istihsan, ijma and urf (habits).

          he died in 148 AH/766 AD, Allahuma igfirlahu war hamhu amen.

  B. Imam Malik

     Imam Malik himself is a founder of the Maliki school, he was born in 93 H or 712 AD in Medina and his full name is Abu Abdullah Malik bin Anas bin Malik bin Abi Amir bin Amr bin Al Haris bin Ghaiman bin Kutail bin Amr bin Haris Al-Asbahi. .

     he belongs to a respectable Arab family and high social status, where his ancestors came from Yemen and then moved to Medina after embracing Islam and his grandfather (Abu Amir) was the first member to embrace Islam in 2 H.

      His love for religious knowledge and knowledge made his life as a whole immortalized in the world of science and knowledge, so it's no wonder Imam Malik has mastered a lot of knowledge at a young age. Many great scholars who have received knowledge from him include Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Asyafi' I and the caliphs from al-Mansur, al-Mahdi, Harun, al-Ma'mun and many other scientists.

      Imam Malik's most famous book is the book "Al-Muwattha" (the book of fiqh which contains a collection of selected hadiths) which is an important reference among Islamic boarding schools and has many features.

     Imam Malik died in 179 H/796 AD, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

C. Imam Asyafi'i

 Imam Asyafi'i is also known as the founder of the Shafi'i school, which is widely embraced by Indonesian people. He was born in 150 H or 767 AD in Gaza, Palestine. His full name is Muhammad bin Idris bin Al-Abbas bin Ustman bin Shafi'i bin As-Saib bin Ubayd bin Abdu Zayd bin Hasyim bin Al-Muttalib bin Abu Manaf bin Qusay. His lineage met with the Prophet Muhammad's lineage at Abdu Manaf bin Qushay. Therefore, Imam Shafi'i was still a relative of the Prophet Muhammad.  he was born close to the death of Imam Abu Hanifah, so many say that he is his successor.

       Even though he lived in poverty, he did not give up in seeking knowledge. He often wrote the science of cutting skins, date palm leaves to write the hadiths of the prophet and various other sciences.

   At the age of 7 years Imam Asyafi'i had memorized the Qur'an and at the age of 12 he had memorized the book of Al-Muwatha by Imam Malik, because of his fast memorization, Imam Malik was amazed.

   Imam Shafi'i takes 4 basic references in his madhhaya, namely the Qur'an, Sunnah, Ijma and Qiyas.

His essays include Kitab al-um, ar-treatise and others.

    he died on a Friday night after Isha, the end of the month of Rajab in 204 H at the age of 54 years. Allahuma igfirlahu war hamhu amen.

D. Imam Ahmad bin Hambal

     the last one is Imam Ahmad bin Hambal who is the founder of the Slavali School, who was born in Baghdad in 167 H or 780 AD. His full name is Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Hambal bin Hilal bin Asad bin Idris bin Abdullah bin Hayyan bin Abdullah bin Anas bin Auf. bin qasith bin mazin bin syaiban bin dzuhl bin tsa'labah adz-dzuhli ash-syaibaniy.

     Imam Ahmad is one of the hadith experts, he has memorized up to 700,000 hadiths which are then compiled and written into a book containing 400,000 hadiths called Kitab al-Musnad (containing hadiths that are authentic and a few are weak).

     Imam Ahmad's teachers were numerous, including: Ismail bin Ja'far, Abbad bin Abbad Al-ataky, Umar bin Abdullah bin Khalid, etc. Among his students were Imam Bukhari, Muslim Imam, Imam Abu Dawud, Imam At-Tirmidhi, Imam ibn Majah and many of his students from among the scholars.

    His works include:

  •   Interpretation of the Qur'an
  •   at-date
  •   answer the qur'ani
  •   al-wara
  •   etc.

he died on Friday the 12th of Rabi'ul early 241 H, 800,000 people took his body.Allahuma igfirlahu war hamhu amen.



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